Through life almost every person encounters problems such as leg pain. Leg pain may affect the entire lower extremity or just certain regions (calf pain, foot pain, sole pain, heel pain…).
The causes of leg pain are many and can be related to injuries and diseases of the locomotor system or they can be a consequence of a disease of some other system (cardiovascular, endocrine…).
With aging there is an increased possibility of joint pain of varying intensity from discomfort to severe pain, which may affect quality of life. Pain may be acute (lasting up to several weeks) and chronic (lasting for several months).
Back pain, as one of the most common symptoms, may be a consequence of bad posture and a passive life style. It may also occur as a consequence of other diseases.
Venous diseases are common diseases which occur after the age of fifteen. They are rather enlarged between ages 30 to 50, and the final stage is usually after 60. At that point there are changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue and these are very hard to treat (dermatitis, dermatosclerosis). This disease occurs more frequently in women.
How the disease develops is not entirely explained, but the causes are classified into primary (unknown, mostly genetically determined) and secondary (a consequence of other diseases).
The common essence of all venous diseases is the damage to the vein valves or disrupted blood flow due to blood clots (vein thrombosis).
Risk factors are doing jobs which demand long term, passive, static load (salesmen, catering…), low physical activity, extreme physical exertion, hypertension, deformity (congenital or acquired), obesity…
Varicose veins mostly look like protruding, bluish strings running along the leg just underneath the surface of the skin. The main symptoms are leg pains, feeling heaviness in legs, swelling, feet pain after long standing, itchy skin. When vein walls are stretched, the flaps do not close entirely so that the muscles must work harder to push the blood upwards. Excess blood begins to accumulate in the vein so that vein pressure is increased and there is a possibility of clotting. The main causes that lead to increased vein pressure are pregnancy, long standing and being overweight.
Primarily the risk factors should be prevented and in that sense it is recommended to avoid long standing in one position, to lift the legs above the heart level whenever it is possible, to wear comfortable clothes, to wear comfortable footwear (leather slippers, clogs, sandals, magnetic insoles), to avoid excessive sunbathing of the legs and to lose weight…
Diagnosis is established through clinical examination and depending on the severity of the condition a corresponding treatment is determined (conservative, sclerotherapy or surgery).
Feet carry the entire body weight and enable walking. The sceletal structure of the feet consists of the tarsal bones (ossa tarsi), metatarsal bones (ossa metatarsi) and the phalanges (ossa digitorum pedis). Feet bones are linked by joints, muscles and their entheses.
The most common division of feet diseases is in inflammatory (where the dominant inflammatory changes are swellings, joint pain, enhanced inflammatory blood parameters, red heels…) and non-inflammatory (where the disorders are structural, i.e. static disorders–disorders of the distribution of weight along the foot).
Various feet deformities (congenital or acquired) lead to changes in the biomechanical ratio and foot pain is a symptom which indicates the static disorder of weight distribution. Initially, foot pain occurs occasionally (in the morning, evening or during the night), and in time, if no treatment is applied, pain occurs even when resting. Pain may occur only in the front or back part of the foot or along the inner edge. According to the sensation pain may be burning, dull, diffuse or localized, with alternating sensations (cold).
In some cases the way we walk is the first sign of disruption or disease. Damage to the peripheral nerves may be manifested by greater distance between the feet when walking or by slight lagging of a leg when walking i.e. dragging a foot. Chronic nerve damage in the foot area occurs as a consequence of diabetes (diabetic foot), where firstly the ability to sense pain is lost, and the patient cannot notice possible foot injuries. In addition to the microtrauma persistent infections may occur and the entire foot may be under risk of amputation. The immune system is weakened and the blood flow is poor in the legs. Aside from diabetes nerve damage may be a consequence of a deficit of certain vitamins, alcoholism, infections.
Footwear for diabetics
Patients with diabetes must pay special attention to the type of footwear they use: it must be comfortable, made of natural materials, the front part of the foot must be wide so that the toes have enough space, the top part must be made of leather and the sole of rubber or leather. The heel should not be higher than 5 cm (except in special circumstances).
Mihajlo Pupin Institute, in its wide range of products has anatomic slippers (leather slippers with magnets). This is clinically tested footwear with magnets (clogs and slippers), and there are also insoles with magnets which adjust to the foot and can be used with various types of shoes.
Mihajlo Pupin slippers are equipped with magnets which ease long standing and walking, reduce foot pain by performing permanent and mild acupressure of the soles. Akma slippers do not only affect the feet but also put the entire body in an anatomically proper posture.
Leg pain as a symptom may be musculoskeletal (related to bones, muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments…), neurological (related to nerves and nerve branches), vacular (related to arteries, veins and lymph nodes).
Heel pain may occur as a consequence of various injuries and diseases and one of the most common causes is plantar fasciitis, which is closely related to heel spur. Mostly it occurs after long-lasting microtrauma and usually in sprotsmen (jumpers, runners, and basketball players…), as well as in people who spend a lot of time standing or do hard manual labor. Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the ligaments where the muscles are attached to the heel bone (calcaneus).
Heel pain is more severe in the morning, when getting up, and after long walking, after exertion and long sitting.
Treatment is most frequently non-invasive and it includes various methods of physical therapy. Also, the footwear that patients use is important, it must not be soft or too hard, it must be made of natural materials and the recommendation is that the heel height be between 2 and 5 cm.
Bunions (Hallux valgus) are a deformity of the front foot which more often occurs in women. It is a progressive deformity which causes the side bending of the big toe, the first metatarsal bone is moved towards the inner side and a painful protrusion is formed on the inner side of the foot in the level of metatarsophalangeal joint.
It is considered that the main cause of this deformity is wearing uncomfortable, inadequate footwear. The modern lifestyle and fashion imposes the use of excessively high heels, which leads to a multiple increase of the tension in the front part of the foot. In this type of footwear the position of the foot is not natural, and if the shoes are narrow (a trend) – the movement of toes is reduced.
There are other reasons such as genetic, flat feet, fallen arches, the length of the big toe.
Various toe lenghts characteristic of certain peoples
Pain, and recently, aesthetics have become the main reasons for which people go to a doctor.
After a diagnosis has been established (x-ray is necessary to assess the severity of the deformity), measures are undertaken for treating bunions. These may be non-invasive and invasive (when severe deformities occur).
Non-invasive treatment primarily includes wearing comfortable footwear and avoiding high heels. The front part must be comfortable, wide and made of leather. Such footwear decreases pain and deformity irritation.
Footwear with akma magnets produced by Institute Mihajlo Pupin contains 12 magnets which are precisely distributed at the acupressure points on the foot. It is known that magnet therapy is most efficient via the feet. Slippers and clogs with magnets are made of natural materials (leather) and they ease problems caused by bunions formed through wearing inadequate footwear.
Insoles with magnets contain 10 magnets which, aside from their magnetic effects, perform acupressure of the sole while the round bristles massage the soles and improves blood flow.
By wearing clinically tested footwear designed in this fashion one will very quickly achieve improvement of the general condition, reduction of pain, free movement, improvement of peripheral blood flow (cold feet), and proper posture.
The footwear is designed in beige, white and black color, with closed and open front part slippers for men and women.